When It Comes To COVID-19, Do You Know Whether 75% or 99% Isopropyl Alcohol Is The Better Disinfectant?
Apr 02,2022 | Deeyeo
As the Coronavirus pandemic continues to spread, more and more people are using alcohol wipes.
One common misconception is that a higher percentage of alcohol concentration in disinfectants provides greater effectiveness in killing away germs and pathogens from the surfaces used. But is this claim true or false?
What are the differences between 75% and 99% Isopropyl alcohol?
99% Isopropyl alcohol is a pure isopropanol whereas 75% isopropyl alcohol is pure isopropanol diluted with 25 percent purified water by volume (CDC, 2020). 75% isopropyl alcohol kills organisms by denaturing their proteins and dissolving their lipids and is effective against most bacteria, fungi and many viruses, but is ineffective against bacterial spores .
75 % isopropyl alcohol is by far better at killing bacteria and viruses than 90 % isopropyl alcohol.
As a disinfectant, the higher the concentration of alcohol, the less effective it is at killing pathogens. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) did research on disinfecting and sanitizing methods and published the Guideline for Disinfection and Sterilization in Healthcare Facilities.
Use of the more concentrated solutions (99%) will result in almost immediate coagulation of surface or cell wall proteins and prevent passage of the alcohol into the cell. When the outer membrane is coagulated, it protects the virus or bacteria from letting through the isopropyl (Widmer and Frei, 2011). Thus the stronger solution of isopropyl is creating a protection for the germ from the antiseptic properties of isopropyl, rendering the virus or bacteria more resilient against the isopropyl alcohol. To put it simply, higher concentrations cause an external injury that forms a protective wall and shields the organism. Furthermore, 99% isopropanol evaporates very quickly which does not allow it to penetrate cell walls and kill bacteria, and therefore isn’t as good for disinfecting surfaces. In other words, it breaks down the outside of the cell before it can penetrate the pathogen.
In comparison, a 75% isopropyl alcohol can effectiveness cross over the cell membrane, thereby attacking the entire cell and killing the bacteria. The benefits of using 75% alcohol are:
- Coagulation of surface proteins proceeds at a slower pace, thereby allowing the alcohol to enter the cell.
- 75% alcohol, being a dilution of absolute alcohol, contains water which is essential in the denaturing process of proteins.
- Due to the concentration difference of water and alcohol on either side of the cell wall, 75% alcohol enters the cell to denature both enzymatic and structural proteins. This increases the potency of its antimicrobial properties.
Expert recommends 75% for disinfecting one’s household and routine cleaning.